In today’s industrial sector, direct current (DC) motors are used everywhere. From robotics to automobiles, small and medium-sized motoring applications often feature DC motors for their wide range of functionality. Simply put, a DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical motors that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. When it comes to types of DC motors, here are some of the possible ways of classifying micromotors.
Because DC motors are deployed in such a wide variety of applications, understanding the different types of DC motors will help you understand which type may suit the tasks in the corresponding application.
Types of DC Motors – Characteristics & Applications
Method One: Classified by Electrical Connections
Generally, DC machines are classified based on the electrical connections of the Armature Winding and the Field Winding. Different types of machines or motors are produced with different types of connections. There are three types of DC Motors. They are:
In permanent magnet DC motors (PMDC), the armature winding are placed in a magnetic field to produce field flux and it doesn’t contain the field winding. This type of motor uses a permanent magnet to create the magnetic field required for its operation. The advantages of the permanent magnet type are that no supply is needed for the rotor and the rotor construction can be robust and reliable. Permanent magnet DC motors have excellent starting torque capability with good speed regulation. The steady-state efficiency and power-factor at full load are in most cases better than the equivalent induction motor, and they can pull-in to synchronism with inertia loads of many times rotor inertia.
PMDC motors are mainly used in automobiles such as EPB, EPS AND windshield wipers and washers, computer drives, toy industries, smart home such as electric toothbrushes, portable vacuum cleaners and food mixers, etc.
ZHAOWEI is committed to manufacturing PMDC motors with precision planetary gearheads. It works together with business partners to develop business and consolidate the brand loyalty.
- Separately-Excited DC Motors
In this type of motors, the field winding or coil is energized by a separate or external DC source. The armature winding and field winding are electrically separate from each other. The flux produced by the poles depends upon the field current with the unsaturated region of the magnetic material of the poles. i.e. flux is directly proportional to the field current. But in the saturated region, the flux remains constant.
Separately-excited DC motors are often used as actuators in trains and automotive traction applications.
- Self-Excited DC Motors
Self-excited DC motor is a device, in which the current to the field winding is supplied by the generator itself. The field coils may be connected in parallel with the armature in the series, or it may be connected partly in series and partly in parallel with the armature windings. Self-excited motors are often divided into three types as follows:
- Shunt Wound DC Motor (field winding is connected in parallel with the armature)
- Series Wound DC Motor (field winding is connected in series with the armature)
- Compound Wound DC Motor (a hybrid between the series wound and shunt-wound designs)
Self-excited DC motors are often used for lighting purposes and heavy power supply.
Method Two: Classified by Structure
When classified by the structure of DC motors, the two most common types of DC motors are known as brush DC and brushless DC (BLDC). Brushed motors were once very common. Though they’ve been largely supplanted by their brushless counterparts, the right DC motor of either type can make a project far more efficient.
Essentially, in a brushed motor, the current is transferred mechanically via metallic brushes, whereas in a brushless motor the rotor is turned electronically with no need for physical contacts. Click here for more detailed information >>
Method Three: Classified by Rated Voltage
According to the rated voltage, micro DC motors can be classified into several kinds. The most popular types include 3V DC motor, 5V DC motor, 6V DC motor, 12V DC motor, 24V DC motor. All of these types are available and customizable by ZHAOWEI drive system. The rated voltage of a DC motor indicates the most efficient voltage while running. Be sure to apply the recommended voltage. If you apply too few volts, the motor will not work, whereas too many volts can cause short circuits of field windings resulting in power loss or complete destruction.
Gears Harness the Power of DC Motors
No matter which type of DC motor you choose, it is vital to know where it will be applied. That’s because the question of whether a DC motor with or without mechanical gears is better obviously varies from application to application. Many devices rely on DC motors for power. Owing to their high shaft speeds, DC motors are commonly paired with a micro gearbox. Take 12V DC motor high torque for example, without the micro gearbox, the shaft speed of it often exceeds the requirements of most applications. In such applications where shaft speed must be controlled, a DC motor alone may not be the best option. Therefore, many DC motors are paired with mechanical gearboxes to harness the power.
To sum up, this article includes some of the classification ways of DC motors. Hope you’ll have a bit better idea of what kind of motor works best for you.